Human Molecular Epidemiology, Immunology and Enzyme Technology
- Asthma: Single nucleotide polymorphisms of some novel genes were studied to shed light on role of these genes on asthma in North Indian population. High risk association was found for IL-1RN VNTR, IL-4 VNTR, GSTT1, GSTM1, MBL2 (codon 54 A/B), IL13Rα1, ADAM33 V4C>G and CHIT1 genes. Protective association was found for TIM1−1454G>A, TLR4 C>1196T and MMP-2-1306C/T promoter gene and no association was seen for β2AR-27, PTGDR -441C/T and TLR4 A>896G gene polymorphisms with asthma. • Tuberculosis: Genotyping in P2X7 gene coding for P2X7 receptor revealed significant protective association against TB. For MBL gene, mutant ‘B’ allele is associated with protection against TB while no effect was found for MBL A/B polymorphism on sputum conversion time in TB. However, significant association was observed for VDR, NAT2, GST and CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms with TB in the North Indian population.
- Coronary Artery Disease: Genetic determinants are considered important risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present case control study revealed risk association in the heterozygous genotype for ALOX15G/A, heterozygous and mutant genotype for ALOX15 T/C, ANRIL C/G, IL-8 A/T, TLR4 and mutant genotype for LOX1, IL-10 and IFN-γ T/A. Risk associations were also documented with age, gender, obesity, family history, smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, Apo A1 and B and lipid profile thus highlighting the need to conduct such studies so as to have a better risk profiling and make reformed lifestyle and health-care choices and development of individual based pharmacogenetic therapy. 5/15 • Explored the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity of P16, a semisynthetic analog of parthenin, against the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia, MOLT-4 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, PANC-1 cells. P16 showed induced apoptosis accompanied by downregulation of PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells. Also, P16 exhibited multiple pharmacological properties as evident by its cytostatic and antiangiogenic potential against pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.
- Immobilization of quantum dots encapsulated polystyrene microcapsules for multianalyte sensing was done using different advanced microscopy techniques to show their potential applications for sensing of multiple analytes. • Hot springs of Rampur, Himachal Pradesh, India were explored for the production of α-amylase from thermophiles. Isolates were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, Exobacterium mexcicanum, Bacillus safrensis, Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus halodurans and Caldimonas hydrothermale based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Amylase gene was also amplified for Bacillus licheniformis species only. Media components and process parameters were optimized for the production of α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RA31 (NCBI Accession ID KT989882). Enzyme was precipitated by ethanol and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Purified α-amylase was characterized, its starch hydrolysis was observed on TLC and Kinetic parameters were also determined.
- Manikaran hot springs, Himachal Pradesh, India were assessed for taxanomic and functional (αgalactosidase) diversity employing culture independent approach with three water and two soil samples using MG-RAST. While, 997 bacterial strains were identified using SEED database. Culture dependent methods were used to isolate high yielding Bacillus flexus JS27 (Accession sequence ID MN889472) followed by optimization of parameters for the enzyme production. Isoenzymes (α-gal I and II) obtained after DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography were screened. α-Gal II was selected, purified and characterized. The enzyme demonstrated substrate hydrolysis and simultaneous formation of transgalactosylated products (α-GOS) with numerous substrates which highlighted its potential use in food industry.
- Fifty-two microbes were isolated from dairy waste water (DWW) of Verka Milk Plant, Mohali (Punjab, India). Optimization of various parameters was done to screen the most efficient microbes (free/immobilized) for treatment of DWW. Three bacterial (E3/E5/E11) and one fungal (F5) isolates gave a maximum reduction in physico-chemical parameters. They showed an optimum COD reduction when followed with natural coagulants/surfactants treatment. They were identified (16S/5.8S rRNA sequencing) as Serratia marcescens (E3; Accession ID KX215147), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (E5; Accession ID KX215148), Brachybacetrium muris (E11; Accession ID KT372349), Cunninghamella echinulata (F5; Accession ID KX179502) and their consortium set D showed highest remediation of DWW.